Representation of global and local musculature in the sagittal plane used in the T1–S1 model (IC iliocostalis, IP iliopsoas, LG longissimus, MF multifidus, QL quadratus lumborum, RA rectus abdominis, EO external oblique, IO internal oblique muscles)
A sagittally symmetric muscle architecture with 46 local muscles
(attached to the L1–L5 vertebrae) and ten global muscles (attached
to the thoracic cage T1–T12) are used (Figs. 2 and 3 ):
iliopsoas (IP), iliocostalis (IC), longissimus (LG), multifidus
(MF) and quadratus lumborum (QL) as local muscles attaching the
pelvis to lumbar vertebrae (except the IP that originates from the
proximal femur); and iliocostalis (IC), longissimus (LG), rectus
abdominis (RA), external oblique (EO) and internal oblique (IO) as
global muscles attaching the pelvis to the thoracic cage.
The architecture (Figs. 2 and 3 ) and physiological
cross-sectional areas (Table 1 ) are taken based on published
works [ 3 , 11 , 17 , 24 , 25 , 35 , 51 ].
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